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Dominion School Telegraphy and Railroading

Toronto, Ontario

Practical Instructions and Special Lectures in


Second Edition

| Instruction Paper with Test Questions |


Part 2

Entered according to act of the Parliament of Canada in the year 1911, by Joseph Edward Cassan at the department of Agriculture. All rights reserved.



1. The lessons are divided into parts and numbered, and are only supplied to the student as he progresses with his studies Study a few pages at a time. Do not skip from one section of the paper to another. If there are any statements you do not understand, ask the instructor, or drop us a card or letter, advis- ing what section and page you are having diffieulty with, and we will explain the matter in detail. Review thoroughly, and write out the answers to the test questions at the end of this paper, and send or hand in your work for criticism. Your elass letter and number is given you on your certificate of enrollment, and it is important that you put this on your examinations, as well as any letters you write to the schools. Failing to write this on, will cause delay in answering letters or returning exami- nation work. Send one examination at a time. Don’t write out the examination questions themselves. Use the num- ber of the questions and write out your answer. In writing the aaswers, simply head you: naper thus :—

Answers to Test Questions. Telegraphy Part 1. John Smith, G.D. 215, 440 Delaware Ave., Nov. 30/10. Toronto, Ont.

2. We desire to get in close touch with you in your studies,

and would ask that you keep us informed regarding your pro- gress and any difficulties you may meet with in your studies.




1. The second step in the study of telegraphy, is the writ- ing or making the characters on the telegraph instrument, known as the key. This may be done alone. It requires a great deal of practice before one is thoroughly familiar with the method of operating, but we trust the instruction in this book will serve to give you the practical information necessary to attain the art of good sending.

2. In writing on the telegraph key, it is important that you sit erect in an easy natura: position, facing the key. Both feet should be on the floor, the right foot slightly in advance of the left. The left arm in the same position as if you were hold- ing a page of paper to write on. In reality, this is the proper position for penmanship.

8. The student should bear in mind that accurate sending is of greater importance than speed. Take good care that you send slowly at first. Strive for a uniform, even, smooth style of sending. Speed will come by practice.



4. The proper position for holding the key is shown in fig. 1, and is the one adopted by the majority of the most speedy and perfect operators. :

5. Rest the first finger on the top and near.the edge of the key button, with the thumb and the second finger against the opposite edges, as shown. e the first and the second finger so as to form the quarter .--.ion of a circle. Avoid straight- ness or rigidity of these fingers and the thumb. Partly clor>




the third and the fourth <1 ser. Rest the elbow easily upon the table. allowing the wrist t be perfeetly limber. When the proper ‘‘swing’’ is acquired, the forearm moves freely in conjunction with the wrist and fingers. The fingers and © jumb should act as the end of a lever, the wrist and forearm doing the work. Let the grasp on the key be moderately firm, but not rigid. Grasping the knob tightly will quickly tire the hand and destroy the control of the key, causing what is termed ‘*telegraphers’ cramp,’’ or the ‘‘glass hand.”’

6. Another position may be mentioned, although we do not think it is as good a position as the +e illustrated Plaee the first two fingers on the farther edge o1 the key kn with the thumb under the edge. This position sometimes r the hand from the first position mentioned. The balance of the information given for the position illustrated in fig. 1 will apply in this case as well.

7. Avoid too 1.uch foree or too light a touch, and strive for a medium firm closing of the key. It is not the heavy pres- sure of the key but the evenness of the stroke that constitutes good sending. Telegraph repeaters can be adjusted for both light and heavy senders, but not for an uneven sender. A telegraph repeater adjusted for either a light or a heavy sender might be out of adjustment for a perfect sender. The motion should be directly up and down, avoiding all side pressure. Never, of course, allow the fingers or thumb to leave the key; that is. do not tap or strike the key with the fingers, or allow the elbow to leave the table. The correct met'od of sending is an easy one, and, when it is properly doae, an operator should be able to send for 12 hours continuously without tiring.


8. Assuming that you have memorized the telegraph codes as given in the first instruction paper, we will discontinue the use of the symbols in this book, so that all the practice exer- cises taken up in order, will be helpful to the memory in re- calling what stands for the characters, and in this way, ad- vance the work more rapidly than would otherwise be the case if the symbols were shown underneath each letter, figure, ete.




9. You will remember in the first instruction paper, the dot was taken as the unit by which the lengths of the dots, dashes and spaces were measured, and a table was also given you, showing the difference in the time of making a dot, dash, ete., the dash being three times the length of the dot or 3 units. This dash has reference to the letter ‘‘T.”’

10. The dot ‘‘E’”’ is made by a firm downward stroke of the key, followed immediately by a quick upward motion. On the sounder, the dot is indicated by a down stroke, and im- mediately followed by an up stroke.

11. The dash ‘‘T’’ is made by holding the key down as long as it takes to make 3 dots. On the sounder, the short dash is indicated by a down stroke, followed (after an inter- val of 3 dots) by an up stroke.

12. The long dash ‘‘L’’ is made by holding the key down, as long as it takes to make 6 dots.

13. The extra long dash ‘‘O, cypher,’’ is made by holding the key down as long as it takes to make 9 dots. This will be noticed to be one-half longer than the long dash ‘‘L.’’ How- ever, in practice, the ‘‘L’’ and the ‘‘O’’ are generally made the same. Occurring alone, the long dash will be read as ‘‘L,”’ but when found among figures, it will be translated as ‘‘O, cypher.”’

14. Nore.—When the student has thoroughly mastered the art of sending and receiving, the length of the dash, long dash and extra long dash may be shortened as follows: Dash to 2 units, long dash to 4 units, extra long dash to 5 units. This will be done unconsciously in rapid sending. By thus shorten- ing the dashes, a material gain and rapidity of transmission is affected without any great disadvantage.

15. The intervals between dots and dashes in the same letters are called breaks, and in letters that do not contain spaces, the dots and dashes should follow one another as closely as possible, but in the spaced letters, O, C, R, Y, Z, & the space should occupy the time required for 2 units, that is, the space between the dots in the letter. Such a space is indicated on the sounder by an interval of the duration of 2 units between the instant of breaking and the making of the next character. The down and up mofions occupy about 1 unit of time.

16. The interval between letters in a word, should occupy the time required for 3 dots or 3 units. The interval between words, should occupy the time required for 6 units, that is, the key remains against the upper contact for 5 units, the up and down motion occupying 1 unit of time.





17. In telegraphy, the same as in penmanship, it is im- portant that a eareful study of the position of the body and the movement of the wrist should not be slighted. The more at- tention given to the correct position and movement, the better and faster will be the gain in sending.

Uniform spacing, with a firm smooth style of sending should be attained by giving proper time in practice to the various exercises that are to follow.

All letters must be made perfect, and do not get into the habit of sending too fast at first, without any regard to uniform spacing. Some are inclined to put the characters in letters too elosely together, which creates jerky uneven sending, which is not only hard to copy, but hard to read-

A very good rule for a beginner to observe in order to get good spacing between letters in words and between words in sentences, is to pronounce each letter after it is made, then the word after you have pronounced the last letter of each word. You will notice in this plan that in pronouncing the word after the letter you give about twice the space between the words that you do between the letters of the words, which is correct.

If an error is made in sending, the interrogation mark should be made, just in the same way as a person would say in carrying on a conversation and had made a mistake, ‘‘1 beg your pardon,’’ repeating the last word that was spoken, or, in the case of telegraphy, repeating the word in which occurred the mistake. A sending operator is always supposed to recog- nize his own mistakes and correct them, as the receiving operator has no other method of knowing what is actually to be copied other than what he, hears on the sounder.



18. At this stage of the instruction, you arrive at a time when you now apply to practical work what you have studied in the preceding instruction, and it must be borne in mind that in sending, careful thought*should at all times be given, remembering that the more practice you have on the key, the more it disciplines the ear to recognize the sounds of the vari- ous characters. so that no matter who might be making the characters. they could be reeognized and copied down.

19. The receiving off the instruments is considered the most difficult part in learning telegraphy, therefore, we cannot im- press upon vou, too much, the importance of plenty of prac- tice. in order to get the various signs thoroughly fixed in the mind. The exercises will be taken up in numerical order, and should be mastered in regular order, as each is designed to unlock the exercise that follows. Do not be afraid to repeat the various exercises over and over. until such time as you can make them without any mistakes, and do not leave one exercise until it is thoroughly mastered.


20. After referring to the illustration of the proper method of holding the key, learn the movement first on the dot char- acters, making each character at the average rate of 3 dots per second.

21. As you progress in your practice exercises your speed will gradually increase without any noticeable effort on your part and this gaining in speed siowly is desired—a student shoul not send but a trifle faster than he ean receive.


22. In practicing these characters, make each letter in order, thus:—One dot, two dots, three dots, ete., going through the exercise forward and backwards, until you are sure you get the proper number of dots each time for each individual letter. After this has been accomplished, drill on each indi- vidual letter, until you get in the habit of making each letter as it comes to your mind without the slightest hesitation. After this, write the exercise in the various combinations, so that if they should come in the same manner as they would in a word like ‘‘his,’’ you would iot hesitate to make them.


j ;


a ee




23. If after making a character about 20 times your hand becomes tired or stiff, let go the key, pick up a piece of paper, or book, relax the muscles by simply closing and opening the fist, and bending the wrist in a straight up and down motion, then in taking hold of the key again, be sure your fingers drop into the proper position at once.

24. As the dot characters appear more often than any other letters in the alphabet, this is a very important exercise, and constant practice should be devoted to these all through the course, in order that you will gradually gain in speed.

25. Be careful to make the spacing between the dots uni- form, and not prolong the last dot into a dash. It is a very bad habit to make 6 dots when you only want 5, or vice-versa,

Instructors’ check here :—


26. This exercise is similar to the first, in as much as it is composed of dots and spaces. In making these letters, the space should be made just double that ordinarily allowed be- tween the elements of the letter. Avoid making the space too long, as there is more likelihood that it be made too long rather than too short. Hold the key down for the duration of one dot only; the down and up motion of the key is equivalent to another dot, so that the total space is equivalent to 2 units. It will be remembered that in the table given in the first instrue- tion paper, that the space in spaced letters was equivalent to 2 units. The space in these characters, is simply a pause equiva- lent to 2 units. The more rapid they are sent. the shorter the space will be, yet it will be uniform. As there are more dot and spaced characters, found in ordinary words, it is very important that they be thoroughly mastered, because it is in these characters that the beauty and pride that most oper- ators have in sending, is usually shown. Here are the char- acters :—


27. Repeat this exercise on the key, backwards and_for- wards and in various ways, so that any letter can be made at will, and do not leave the exercise until it is thoroughly mas- tered.

Instructors’ check here :—



28. Learn the movement on dashes by inaking them at the rate of one a second. Special care should be taken to make the breaks between the dashes as short as possible. If a good free movement is used, the dashes cannot be made too close together. In making letters compused of two or more dashes, the beginners have a tendency to make the final dash too short. Hold the key down the length of three dots for the ordinary dash. Here are the charecters:—


T L M 5 O 29. Drill on this exercise until each one can be made in any order desired.

Instructors’ check here :—


oO. In this exercise, be careful not to hesitate in making a dash in each ease. In making U it is similar to 8S, and should be made just as uniform as 3 dots. with the exception that you hold on to the last one and turn it into a dash. Beginners have a tendency to hesitate before coming to the dash, and apparently seem to put on extra stress in trying to make the dash uniform with the dots. Let the dots and the dashes follow one another closely, and avoid making the dash too short or too long.


A U V 4

31. Practice on these backwards and forward and in vari- ous ways, until they can be made at will without any hesitation.

Instructors’ check here :—



32. In making the Dash-and-Dot Characters, there is a great tendency to make the break between the dash and the dot too long, and should this be done in making the letter N, T E is made instead of N. In making the letter B, when you hold the key down to make the dash, the other three dots should be made uniform, and the letter should be made compact before the instrument is allowed to break. The dots following the dashes, should be made in a sense the same as if the whole character consisted of dots, with the exception that the pressure is held on the first part of the character, and the moment the instrument is released the dots should be made uniform.


N D B 8

33. Practice these slowly at first, and strive for a firm, uni- form motion on the key. In making the letter N, the dash-dot might be timed by pronouncing the word ‘‘Nine-ty,’’ holding the dash while the first syllable is pronounced, and the dot when pronouncing the last. Drill on each letter individually, going backward and forward in the exercise as well as in vari- ous orders, until you have thoroughly mastered the movement of each one.

Instructors’ check here :—


34. In this exercise, it will be noticed that if the last dot in I, S, H, or P is carelessly prolonged into a dash, the letter following it in the exercise will be made instead of the one in- tended. Notice A is the opposite of N, U the opposite of D, V the opposite of B, and 4 the opposite of 8. If A and N are made too closely together, you make the figure 1; similarly, too little space between T and H will produce figure 8.



35. Practice this exercise backwards and forwards and in various combinaticns, until each one can be mastered without any hesitation.

Instrr tors’ check here :—



36. Two of the most difficult characters to make correctly are K and J. If the final dash in K is made too short, it will be D, and if too much space is made between the dot and last dash it will form N T. Similarly, too much space before the second dash in J will transform it into NN. Keep in mind that each letter made up of two or more symbols must be made compact as if each one were set out by itself. Practice this exercise until it is thoroughly mastered.

Eo Gik sg WE Ss SF <9

Instructors’ check here :—


37. As the period, comma and interrogation mark are used more often than all others, it is important that this exercise be given careful attention, as the indication of punctuations in messages, train orders, ete., is so frequent, that it is absolutely necessary for an operator to know these. Practice the follow- ing in various combinations, until each one is thoroughly mas- tered. It is advisable to drill on each one several times before making the other, then go through the whole exercise in the order that they appear.

The uses of the punctuation code will be taken up in another lesson, and various examples will be illustrated, to give the student the correct idea of how and when they are used. Period. Comma. Interrogation. (SX). Cents (C).

: i ? e@ Quotation at beginn’g (QN) Quotation at end (QJ) Dash (DX) ce 9?

Instructors check here :—

EXERCISE 9. ASB GoD heh Ge Tek) heal tN vO sR Oras aE ER Ve Wa eke We Fe Instructors’ check here :—

EXERCISE 10. 1 BE eS Ge eR ad), Instructors’ check here :— 10


. |



38. In this exercise we will combine letters from the pre- ceding exercises, with a view of having the two or three letters made, using the same spacing as if they belonged to a word, and also using the same space between each exercise as if it were the space between words in a sentence :—

' Si Hi Se Re He Hi His Has Sat

Pa No Ro Na Gu Wh Je Ju Wr Ru Ri Ak Di Dn Mu Mi Ry Vi

Instructors’ check here :—


39. In writing large numbers, a short space is usually made between every three figures. The decimal point is transmitted by spelling out the word ‘‘dot.’’ Practice on this exercise in regular order, until you can make them with ease. Do not make the period w hich is shown at the end of each set of fig- ures, nor do not make the comma, as it is only shown here to separate the three figures where the short pause is to be made. In writing a number of figures following one another (such as ear numbers), it is customary to put a comma between each set.

1,000. 1,506. 1,508. 2,320. 3,125. 14,135. 123,708. 978,467. 875,900. 1,315,479. 4.5. Slay 6.25. 12 esl ae

215.01. $1.25. 17.0005. $154.25.

Insturctors’ check here :—


40. In fractions,a dot (that is the letter E) represents the dividing line. It is also used when a hyphen is shown between figures, which is the same as the fraction sign. In making the E, it is customary to make it quickly and immediately follow it with a figure.

1/3 2-3 3/4 7-8 9/10 15-16 13/14 6-7

Instructors’ check here :— 1l



41. In the following lines, the first two characters, im- properly connected by too short an interval, will make the third character. Thus, if a and t are connected by too short an interval, w will be made; and if e and d are made with too short an interval between them, an x will be made, and so on.

a t w e d x u e q Vv e 3 u i 2 u d (Period)

42. Repeat the above exercise, being careful to form each character correctly, as this will lead to a perfect style in send- ing. There are almost as many styies of sending among oper- ators as there are styles of penmanship.

Instructors’ check here :—


43. The following exercise contains simple words, without spaced letters, and also words containing spaced letters, and it will be noticed that in words where no spaced characters are shown, they are much easier to write. The words (and, the, is, at, ete.) will be recognized more quickly than any others, as * they do not tax the memory or the mind to remember what they really are. Practice this exercise until each word can be made without a mistake.

And Warrant Practice Is Tee Judgment Nominate Vas Little Vacant Limited Poison Teicle Let It

The Quotation Opinion Terminate Rice Desire Maintain Were Train Mississippi

44. Be careful to make An, H, J, K, P, S, and Th correctly in order to avoid their being taken for other characters as pre- viously indicated.

Instructors’ check here :— 12




45. In practicing the following sentences, the student. will have acquired all the various combinations of letters, figures, ete.. and the balance of the instruction, so far as the practice work is concerned, should be devoted to various exercises that you feel you need the most practice in. Coupled with these, you should practice (when the times comes for you to receive in- struction in messages, train orders, ete.) the proper way of sending railroad and commercial messages, train orders, train reports, ete., keeping in mind that all through the course, prac- tice is the secret of success in learning telegraphy.


How are you?

Hlow is the weather there? Have you any freight for me? Do you want to stop 54?

I am busy.

The shipment was delayed. Ask him to speak.

Is that so?

Your way bill is incorrect. When will shipment go forward? The train was delayed. Original copy was attached.

The train was late.

Instructors’ check here :—




46. Sending accurately is more important than high speed, for it is only by accurate sending that a student may hope to form a proper habit. and the constant application of the proper habit will increase the speed gradually. When writing on the key. it is necessary to have the various characters thoroughly fixed in your mind; when you desire to make a character, the mind instantly recalls what represents it, and no hesitation is necessary. The student should cultivate a firm, even, smooth style of sending, and strive for accuracy rather than speed.

47. The custom of timing to ascertain tue speed of send- ing should be very sparingly indulged in by the beginner, for it is likely to produce careless habits. The speed of sending should be graduated to suit the capacity of the receiver. The letters should never be crowded.

48. An operator is no judge of his own sending, and there- fore should not try to see how fast he can send, until he has had corf$iderable experience, yet if you know you have formed the proper habit, and that the character is made properly, it is desirable that you endeavor to gradually increase the speed in writing. While fast sending is seldom indulged in by strictly first-class operators, yet fast time is made by them on account of their steady, even gait, their perfect characters and few repe- titions or mistakes.

49. When you are writing for some one to copy down what is being sent, and the receiver tells you you are not writ- ing properly, or not spacing evenly, accept the suggestion, and endeavor to improve by it, realizing that it is for your own future benefit. A great many mistakes are made unconsciously.

50. Before taking up the next lesson, which is on receiving, a student should carefully review all the exercises in this book, and feel satisfied with himself that he can make them without error. After this thorough review, write out the answers to the Test Questions that appear at the back of the book, and hand them in or send them to us for criticism.





1. Describe the method of holding the key.

2. What direction should the arm move in when writing on the key?

3. (a) Have you gone through the exercises given in the lesson?

(b) Do you feel satisfied that you can make them on the key perfectly ? 4. What is most important m sending?

5. Give a list of the characters that are the reverse to each other.

6. Is it proper to time yourself for speed?

7. Make a report in your own words of the progress you

feel you haye made, advising any particular part of the lesson that appears difficult to you.




TELEGRAPHY Special Examination No. 2

(a) When aw train order has been repeated or ‘' N°" response

sent. and before ‘‘eomplete’’ has been given, how will the order be treated? 214.

(b) Hf the line fail before an office has repeated an order or has sent the ‘X"' response, how will the order be treated?

Which copy must the Operator who receives and delivers a train order, preserve? 215.

When a train is named in a train order and by its schedule number alone, are all seetions of that schedule included ? 218.

When must an Operator not repeat or give the ““X7" response to a train order for a train which has been cleared, or of which the engine has passed his train order signal? 219. How long do train orders once in effect, continue so? 220. May any part of an order be preceded or annulled ? When do orders held by cr issued for or any part of an order ‘relating to a regular train, become void ?

What kind of a signal must pe used at each train order office?

What is its normal indication ?

Under what conditions will the normal indication be changed?

When an operator receives the signal ‘31"’ or ‘'19,’’ fol- lowed by the direetion, what is he required to do?

(e) Under what conditions may the signal be restored to nor- mal indication ?

(f) When may a train proceed after being stopped by a train order signal ?

(g) What is required of Operators if the fixed signal should fail to work properly ?

(h) If a signal is not displayed at a night office, what is re- quired of a train that has not been notified ?

What is required of Operators with regard to reporting the arrival and departure of all trains? 222.

_In the following order, how will trains run with respect to each other? No. 1 Eng. 262 meet No. 2 Eng. 275 at D.”



Should a meeting order be sent for delivery to a train at the meeting point, what addition is made to the order? “Extra 87 West has right over No. 8 Eng. 453 B to D.”” Under this order, when may a regular train go beyond the point last named? “No, 1 Eng. 942 run twenty (20) minutes late A to BE.” “No, 1 Eng. 942 run twenty (20) minutes late A to E and fifteen (15) minutes late A to T.”’ How do the above orders affect the schedule time of the train named between the stations mentioned ? “No. Eng. 56 wait at H until ten (10) a.m. for No. 10

Eng. 75.” In this order when may the first named train pass the designated station ? How will the last named train be governed ? “No, 1 Eng. 65 and No. 3 Eng. 73 wait at N until ten (10) a.m.—P. until ten-thirty (10.30) a.m. R. until ten fifty-five (10.55) a.m.”" Under this order may the train named pass the desig- nated station before the time given? (b) How will other trains receiving orders be governed ? When extra trains are run over working limits, what must they be given? _ (a) Eng. 292 work seven (7) a.m. to six (6) p.m. between QO and E, not protecting against east bound extras.”’ Under this order, how will the work extra be governed ?

(b) If the wording in the above order were changed to read,

not protecting against extras, how would the work extra

be gove d? How will a train holding an order to meet a work extra be

governed ?


We always keen on hand the necessary supplies, so that students need not go outside the school to get anything they require in connection with their studies.

A student bezinning his course in the Day School pays $2.00 for his instruction books and a supply of stationery, The sta-

tionery consists of seribbling books. writing nads, speed examin-

ation pad. two pencils. pen holder. two pen points, in addition to having the regular station forms whieh are supplied in the stations. The message blanks. ete.. are not required ontil such ime as a student gets in the senior class. The following articles may be purchased any time throngh the school :— Teloeranh Learner’s Outfit. including dry cell batters and wire Tndividual Telegraph Key (Leg). each.. Individual Telegraph Key (legless). each Individual Telegraph Sounder, each Bell Wire for connecting instruments. 25 feet for Blue Vitrol (for Gravity Battery). per Ib Jar for Gravity Battery

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Gravity Battery, complete. with copper. zine and Blue Vitrol. 1 Ib

Dry (Cell Battery. each

Fountain Pens. Special


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Stvlusses for writing train orders, each

Seribbling Pads. each

Examination Pads (3 for 25s) each

Pen Holders, each

Pencils. 2 for

rwentieth Century Telegraph Manual, bv Frederick T.

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Mever, Chieago ; Penmanship Book, Part 1 bb Penmanship Book. Part 2 25 Meecograph (A Hand Sending Instrument) 9.00 Automatic Telegraph Transmitter (for home study pur-

poses ) 25.00