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BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF THE GREAT CATARACTS OF THE ZAMBESI (CALLED MOSIOATUNYA, OR VICTORIA FALES) AND OF TIE

ZIGZAG CHASM BELOW THE FALLS THROUGH WHICH THE RIVER ESCAPES.

a A Qa. ay e a

ta

*%, Ja ane

BIRD’S-EYE VIEW OF THE GREA ZIGZAG

NARRATIVE

OF AN

EXPEDITION TO THE ZAMBESI AND ITS TRIBUTARIES ;

AND OF THE DISCOVERY OF THE LAKES SHIRWA AND NYASSA.

1858—1864.

By DAVID ann CHARLES LIVINGSTONE.

) AAAS eae

tht N) ANN

WITH MAP AND ILLUSTRATIONS.

LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 1865.

The right of Translation is reserved.

TO

THE RIGHT HON. LORD PALMERSTON,

K.G., G.C.B. My Lorp,

I beg leave to dedicate this Volume to your Lordship, as a tribute justly due to the great Statesman who has ever had at heart the amelioration of the African race; and as a token of admiration of the beneficial effects of that policy which he has so long laboured to establish on the West Coast of Africa; and which, in improving that region, has most forcibly shown the need of some similar system on

the opposite side of the Continent.

DAVID LIVINGSTONE.

PREFACE.

—_e—

Ir has been my object in this work to give as clear an account as I was able of tracts of country previously unex- plored, with their river systems, natural productions, and capabilities; and to bring before my countrymen, and all others interested in the cause of humanity, the misery entailed by the slave-trade in its inland phases; a subject on which I and my companions are the first who have had any oppor- tunities of forming a judgment. The eight years spent in Africa, since my last work was published, have not, I fear, improved my power of writing English; but I hope that, whatever my descriptions want in clearness, or literary skill, may in a measure be compensated by the novelty of the scenes described, and the additional information afforded on that curse of Africa, and that shame, even now, in the 19th century, of an European nation,—the slave-trade.

I took the “Lady Nyassa” to Bombay for the express pur- pose of selling her, and might without any difficulty have done so; but with the thought of parting with her arose, more strongly than ever, the feeling of disinclination to abandon the East Coast of Africa to the Portuguese and slave-trading, and I determined to run home and consult my friends before I allowed the little vessel to pass from my hands. After, therefore, having put two Ajawa lads to school under the eminent Missionary the Rey. Dr. Wilson, and having pro- vided satisfactorily for the native crew, I started homewards

with the three white sailors, and reached London July 20th, b

vi PREFACE.

1864. _Mr. and Mrs. Webb, my much-loved friends, wrote to Bombay inviting me, in the event of my coming to Eng- land, to make Newstead Abbey my headquarters, and on my arrival renewed their invitation: and though, when I accepted it, I had no intention of remaining so long with my kind-hearted generous friends, I stayed with them until April, 1865, and under their roof transcribed from my own and my brother’s journal the whole of this present book. It is with heartfelt gratitude I would record their unwearied kindness. My acquaintance with Mr. Webb began in Africa, where he was a daring and successful hunter, and his con- tinued friendship is most valuable, because he has seen missionary work, and he would not accord his respect and esteem to me had he not believed that I, and my brethren also, were to be looked on as honest men earnestly trying to do our duty.

The Government have supported the proposal of the Royal Geographical Society made by my friend Sir Roderick Mur- chison, and have united with that body to aid me in another attempt to open Africa to civilizing influences, and a valued private friend has given a thousand pounds for the same object. I propose to go inland, north of the territory which the Por- tuguese in Europe claim, and éndeavour to commence that system on the Hast which has been so eminently successful on the West Coast; a system combining the repressive efforts of H.M. cruisers with lawful trade and Christian Missions— the moral and material results of which have been so grati- fying. I hope to ascend the Rovuma, or some other river North of Cape Delgado, and, in addition to my other work, shall strive, by passing along the Northern end of Lake Nyassa and round the Southern end of Lake Tanganyika, to ascertain the watershed of that part of Africa. In so doing, I have no wish to unsettle what with so much toil and danger

POSTSCRIPT TO PREFACE. vil

was accomplished by Speke and Grant, but rather to confirm their illustrious discoveries.

I have to acknowledge the obliging readiness of Lord Russell in lending me the drawings taken by the artist who was in the first instance attached to the Expedition. These sketches, with photographs by Charles Livingstone and Dr. Kirk, have materially assisted in the illustrations. I would also very sincerely thank my friends Professor Owen and Mr. Oswell for many valuable hints and other aid in the preparation of this volume.

Newstead Abbey, April 16, 1865.

POSTSCRIPT TO PREFACE.

—_—1oo

The credit which I was fain to award to the Lisbon statesmen for a sincere desire to put an end to the slave- trade, is, I regret to find, totally undeserved. They have employed one Mons. Lacerda, to try to extinguish the facts adduced by me before the meeting of the “British Associa- tion for the Advancement of Science,” at Bath, by a series of papers in the Portuguese Official Journal ; and their Minister for Foreign Affairs has since devoted some of the funds of his Government to the translation and circula- tion of Mons. Lacerda’s articles in the form of an English tract. Nothing is more conspicuous in this official document than the extreme ignorance displayed of the geography of the country of which they pretend that they possess not only the knowledge, but also the dominion. A vague rumour, cited by some old author, about two marshes below Murchison’s Cataracts, is considered conclusive evidence

b 2

Vili POSTSCRIPT TO PREFACE.

that the ancient inhabitants of Senna, a village on the Zambesi, found no difficulty in navigating the Shire to Lake Nyassa up what modern travellers find to be an ascent of 1200 feet in 35 miles of latitude. A broad shallow lake, with a strong current, which Senhor Candido declared he had visited N.W. of Tette, is assumed to be the narrow deep Lake Nyassa, without current, and about N.N.E. of the same point. Great offence is also taken because the discovery of the main sources of the Nile has been ascribed to Speke and Grant, instead of to Ptolemy and F. Lobo. .

But the main object of the Portuguese Government is not geographical. It is to bolster up that pretence to power which has been the only obstacle to the establishment of lawful commerce and friendly relations with the native inhabitants of Eastern Africa. The following work contains abundant confirmation of all that was advanced by me at the Bath meeting of the British Association; and I may here add that it is this unwarranted assumption of power over 1360 miles of coast—from English River to Cape Delgado, where the Portuguese have in fact little real authority —which perpetuates the barbarism of the inhabitants. The Portuguese interdict all foreign commerce, except at a very few pomts where they have established custom- houses, and even at these, by an exaggerated and obstructive tariff and differential duties, they completely shut out the natives from any trade, except that in slaves.

Looking from South to North, let us glance at the enor- mous seaboard which the Portuguese in Europe endeavour to make us believe belongs to them. Delagoa Bay has a small fort called Lorenzo Marques, but nothing beyond the walls. At Inhambane they hold a small strip of land by sufferance of the natives. Sofala is in ruins, and from Quillimane north-

POSTSCRIPT TO PREFACE. ix

wards for 690 miles, they have only one small stockade, protected by an armed launch in the mouth of the River Angoxa to prevent foreign vessels from trading there. Then at Mosambique they have the little island on which the fort stands, and a strip about three miles long on the mainland, on which they have a few farms, which are protected from hostility only by paying the natives an annual tribute, which they call “having the blacks in their pay.” The settlement has long been declining in trade and importance. It is gar- risoned by a few hundred sickly soldiers shut up in the fort, and eyen with a small coral island near can hardly be called secure. On the island of Oibo, or Iboe, an immense number of slaves are collected, but there is little trade of any kind. At Pomba Bay a small fort was made, but it is very doubtful whether it still exists; the attempt to form a settlement there having entirely failed. They pay tribute to the Zulus, for the lands they cultivate on the right bank of the Zambesi; and the general effect of the pretence to power and obstruction to commerce, is to drive the independent native chiefs to the Arab dhow slave-trade, as the only one open to them.

It is well known to the English Government, from reliable documents at the Admiralty and Foreign Office, that no longer ago than November, 1864, two months after my speech was delivered at Bath, when the punishment of the perpetrators of an outrage on the crew of the cutter of H.M.S. “Lyra,” near a river 45 miles 8.W. of Mosambique, was demanded by H.M.S. “Wasp,” at Mosambique, the present Governor-General declared that he had no power over the natives there. They have never been subdued, and being a fine energetic race, would readily enter into commercial treaties with foreigners, were it not for the false assertion of power by which the Portuguese, with the tacit consent of

63

a: POSTSCRIPT TO PREFACE:

4s £ ae

European Governments, shut them out from commerce and every civilizing influence.

This Portuguese pretence to dominion is the curse of the negro race on the East Coast of Africa, and it would soon fall to the ground, were it not for the moral support it derives from the respect paid to it by our own flag. The

‘Emperor Napoleon III. disregarded it in the case of the

“Charles et Georges,” while only by the aid of English sailors has the Government of Mosambique, on more than one occasion, been saved from being overturned. Our squadron on the East Coast costs over 70,0002. a year, and, by our acquiescence in the sham sovereignty of the Portuguese, we effect only a partial suppression of the slave-trade, and none of the commercial benefits which have followed direct dealing with the natives on the West Coast. A new law for the abolition of slavery has been proposed by the King of Portugal; but it inspires me with no confidence, as no means have ever been taken to put similar enactments already passed into execution, and we can only view this as a new bid for still further acquiescence in a system which per- petuates barbarism. Mons. Lacerda has unwittingly shown, by his eager advocacy, that the real sentiments of his employers are decidedly pro-slavery. The great fact that the Americans have rid themselves of the incubus of slavery, and will probably not tolerate the continuance of the murderous slave-trade by the Portuguese nation, has done more to elicit their king’s recent speech than the opinions of his ministry.

bi

CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION.

Hopes oF THE AUTHOR. FAILURE OF SEARCH OF PORTUGUESE For Opuir. Earty Caruonic Misstons. Sir R. Murcui- son’s THEORY. LORD PALMERSTON’S POLICY. OBJECTS OCKEEXPRDELION) ge oss) 3.48. we aac) ah ate

CHAPTER I.

CONCEALMENT OF MoutTHs OF ZAMBESI BY PORTUGUESE. THE ZAMBESI AND ITS BANKS. FREE EMIGRANTS.” MARIANO. SENNA AND ITS “ONE VIRTUE,” SENHOR FERRAO, MaJor SIcCARD AND MaxKonLoLo. LUPATA GORGE .. ..

CHAPTER II.

Meret MAKoLoLo. SUPERSTITIONS. VOLUNTARY SLAVERY.

TETTE, PLANTS, COAL, GOLD, AND IRON. KEBRABASA. MoruMBwa Sy eel RRs career

oe oe oe oe

CHAPTER III.

NATIVE MUSICIANS. AFRICAN FEVER. RIVER SHIRE, FIRST ASCENT OF. Mourcuison’s CATARACTS. SECOND TRIP UP

THE SHIRE. LAKE SHirwA. RETURN TO TETTE. STEAMER, BATRUBE OR.) Se> sa

oe oe oe «e ee ee ee

CHAPTER LY.

THIRD TRIP UP THE SHIRE. Mount MoramBana. Hot roun- TAIN. PORTUGUESE GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE! SHIRE MARSHES. Brrps. BRACKISH SOIL AND COTTON. CHIBISA

CHAPTER V.

MANGANJA HIGHLANDS. BELIEF IN A SupreME BEING. Drs- COVERY OF LAKE Nyassa. Dr. RoscHEerR

Pace

14

42

63

87

»

xu CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VI.

RETURN TO VESSEL. DriREcT ROUTE FROM CxHTIBISA’s TO TETTE. Orr To Konconr. RETURN TO TrETTE. BANYAI AND PortucuEse. TETTE, LAWS AND SOCIETY. ZULU TAX- GATHERERG\)5e)) Sushi 0 eM ona! | te 08 onde ie pet ye

CHA Pit R: avin.

START TO TAKE MaxkoLoLo Home. NEw PATH. SURVEY OF KEBRABASA COMPLETED. SANDIA’S REPORT... .. ..

CHAPTER VIII.

CuicovA. Native Discussions. THe MARCH. “'THE FEAR OF YOU AND THE DREAD OF YOU.” SoLO AND DUET BY OUR DONKEYS ARADO DI Bent sere OW BAG Ger WhO full.

OH ARTE, AX

TETTE GREY SANDSTONE AND COAL. SAGACITY OF ELEPHANTS. ANTS. SALT-MAKING. AFRICAN EMPIRES. SEQUASHA ..

CHAPTER X.

ZuUMBO. CATHOLIC MISSIONS, THEIR FAILURE. Fruits. “SMOKES.” TY ale HON GaWikt are von OAC UN ec ee eae yun eth eu ea aa

CHAPTER XL

Mission To MosEenEKATSE. THE BAWE AND BAENDA PEZI. BATOKA HIGHLANDS. DOGGED BY THE SLAVE-TRADE. AT- TEMPT TO SHUT UP THE RovumMA. FIRST GLIMPSE OF MosI-OA-TUNYA ....

CHAPTER XIL

INMOSTZOA=TUNMA. fe ves, Weis) erey ceil), lord eS Ga eo

CHAPTER ,XIIE

SERVITUDE OF INTERIOR. SEKELETU’S LEPROSY. DocTRESS AND Doctors. ‘TRADE WITH WEST COAST. Mr. HELMORE’S

CHAPTER XIV.

Tor Maxonono. Dr. LIVINGSTONE REVISITS LINYANTI. NATIVE DOUBTS OF THE RESURRECTION yi AR Te a Bee a

Pace

130

174

184

203

219

250

262

281

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XV.

DEPARTURE FROM SESHEKE. KALUNDA AND MoAmpBa FALLS. NATIVE FRUITS. GOLONGWE. SINAMANE .. oc oe oe

CHAPTER XVI.

Mormpa. KARIBA RAPIDS. RAPIDS OF KEBRABASA. REACH Terre 23rp NoveMBeER, 1860..

CHAPTER XVII.

Down ‘to Konconr. THE END OF THE ASTHMATIC.” Kon- GONE AND THE MANGROVE SWAMPS

CHAPTER XVIII.

THE “PIONEER.” BisHop Mackenzie. THe Rovuma. THE SHIRE. SLAVES LIBERATED. THe AJAwA. MAGomMERO .

CHAPTER XIX.

START AGAIN FOR NyAssA. DESCRIPTION OF LAKE AND ITS SHORES. HoRRORS OF INLAND SLAVE-TRADE. MAZITU. ARAB GEOGRAPHY

CHAPTER XX.

Napoteon Ill. Arrivan or H.M.S. “Gorcon.” DEATH OF BisHop MACKENZIE AND oF Mr. Burrup. REVEREND J. STEWART. D=EATH oF Mrs. LIVINGSTONE

CHAPTER XXI.

CONNIVANCE OF GOVERNOR-GENERAL IN’ SLAVE-TRADE. LauncH oF THE “Lapy Nyassa.” ‘Ur THE Rovuma AGAIN. RocKY BARRIER. RETURN TO PIONEER..

CHAPTER XXII.

QUILLIMANE. RETURN TO SHUPANGA. Famine. THE BisHop’s GRAVE. Mr. THORNTON: HIS DEATH. DESOLATION. SEPA- RATION. Dr. MELLER

xill

PAGE

203

ol7

008

348

365

400

418

445

XIV CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXIII.

START FOR UPPER CATARACTS OF SHIRE. AFRICAN POISONS. IRA CALTROR SXPEDITION) | oct yes) eee acess alee anon

CHAPTER XXIV.

Our ENGLISH SAILORS. KiIRK’S RANGE. AJAWA MIGRATIONS. Tur NEGRO TYPE. A SUPERHUMAN INSTRUCTOR .. .. «

CHAPTER XXV.

Kota-KotaA Bay. AFRICANS AND MoHAMMEDANS. AFRICAN RELIGION. Ratns. INUNDATIONS. CLIMATE. WATERSHED. NAT VENGHOGEAP EDV as nnee ine une nines

CHAPTER XXVI.

REASONS FOR RETURNING. AFRICAN Women, THEIR EMPLOY- MENTS .. oe oe ee oe oe oe oe ve oe oe o-

CHAPTER XXVIL

RESEMBLANCE OF AFRICAN HUNTERS TO EGYPTIAN FIGURES. DIALECTS. DIRECTION OF WIND. WET CLOTHES AND FEVER

CHAPTER XXVIII.

REST OF TROPICAL TREES. BisHoPp MACKENZIE’S SUCCESSOR. ABANDONMENT OF Mission. ZAMBESI IN FLOOD. ‘TAKEN IN TOW. HURRICANE. ARRIVAL AT BOMBAY .. .. ..

CHAPTER XXIX.

RESULTS OF EXPEDITION. SLAVE-TRADE A BARRIER TO ALL PROGRESS. THE AFRICAN. AFRICAN STAGNATION. STA- TISTICS OF SIERRA LEONE. EXPEDITIONS AND SETTLE- MENTS Meo 9. es, abl ee, cee Seo ie SER eo

PAGE

464

481

511

539

546

569

585

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

. Bird’s-eye View of the Great Cataracts of the Zambesi .. .. Frontispiece.

Pandanus or Screw Palm, covered with climbing plants, near the Kongone Canal of the Zambesi -. «-Thos. Baines, ft. To face page 19

3. View of Mazaro.—F pe between Portuguese and Rebels in the

distance Ee 28 4, Dance of Landeens, or ils, come Pe lift the Anil Tribute

from the Portuguese at Shupanga .. .. Thos. Baines, ft. op 30 5, The Grave of Mrs. ai under the Baobab-tree, near to

Shupanga House .. . op 31 6. The Ma-Robert in the Fannie above Sees wa ae ne

shaped Hill Kevramisa in the distance .. Thos. Baines, ft. oF 34 7. Landeens, or Zulus, who lift Tribute of the Portuguese at Senna,

exhibiting War Exercises .. .. .. .. Thos. Baines, ft. r, 36

pe eapousterialing the Hippopotamus... -\s5) 6 22) 4) pel =. =), 13S . View of a portion of Kebrabasa Rapids SoS nn E AON CEMUG CIOS

10. Women with Water-pots, listening to the music of the ples:

Sansa, and Pan’s Pipes 20 5 65 11. Mamvira Cataract, the first or lowest of Muichizen’ s Gatethets ae 35 18 12. African Fiddle of one String.. .. .. 66 bo om “to ook EB) 13. View of Steamer, Traps, and dead Ena poten qo oo de ee co | BS 14, Fish-basket .. .. .. sc Sen OO 15. Native web, and Weaver margin the fee arene of the coreie 50

24, 25.

. Blacksmith’s Forge and Bellows of Goatskin .. «. «. «2 ee ee) (118 pelle om Lip-rine of Manganja Woman, 3. -. «2 a7 2. «a. 115 . “Goree,” or Slave-stick tego a ie hws tay Ucere BeSuh tee fe Ps Glo . Wedding Procession at Tette -- »- hos. Baines, fi. ‘To face page 144 PES RURPIOMEIP POO. ar see es just yas ase) cist ey as Pa LOG SUNIL OMPATESH ol P cat cl aw 34| “eds+ fe) ses en, tae bem SS meMUsicAIMEErOUMeHtS|; 2) 52F Je 5. ot; en se, ee Pebciloweandrotherslools ca je) \estuce qe Go am, «i ah OLf

oo te co!) A

Waist-belt .. .. or 5 ca) wile Gang of Captives met at iateniee son ele way to Tette oc To flee page 356

. An old Manganja Woman, showing the Pelele or Lip-ring and the tattooing

in intersecting lines on face, arms, and body .. .. .. .. «. « 394

27. Beehive. Baskets employed by Women to catch Fish.. .. To face page 439 Zoe views Of@aillimane andeof the Pioneer? 5 | sa. cn cistiiasy scien e416 ERE OANA NELOW SS ln oe. eal) ads) oh> Gout See Uae cae dae een LOO BUS Ge ese vata VSN oes ica Wipe cop) pee wane bas to) lo ico! . oa. €EE Sila abi ONE Cael ae ne: WARMER aU oE SOOM MINOT MESO | woe gon. da ee Se MANOADIARSPCATSI | raat) ys) oe) as! (eet UbISe ae, le een oem 33. Woman grinding .. 2 APLCCe eee Meer pare Bo. Soo Ge Hee: 34, Native Mill for grinding Carn HE EMEC TRY “abe iho? ado eo) Abe, eet San MEARAVE DOW on” ya’ sie)” “sie!” aah vee’ stat week” ste vies maa Meee a) OO

Map to Illustrate Dr. Livingstone’s Travels .. .. 1. .. At the end.

2,

THE

ZAMBESI AND ITS TRIBUTARIES.

INTERODUCTLON.

Objects of the Expedition Portuguese Expedition in search of the Ophir of King Solomon India and not Africa indicated by the merchandise sought —Failure in Sofalla—Second Portuguese Expedition after gold-mines Repulsed by large bodies of natives Catholic Missions Want of reliable information regarding them— Erroneous ideas as to the interior of Africa Sir Roderick Murchison’s hypothesis correct Decrease of slave-trade, and increase of lawful commerce on West Coast owing to Lord Palmerston’s policy Fatality of the murderer attends the slave-trader Opinion of Rev. J. L. Wilson on the slave-trade The operations of our cruisers II] effects of sealing up the East Coast Instructions to the Expedition,

Woe first I determined on publishing the narrative of my Missionary Travels,’ I had a great misgiving as to whether the criticism my endeavours might provoke would be friendly or the reverse, more particularly as I felt that I had then been so long a sojourner in the wilderness, as to be quite a stranger to the British public. But I am now in this, my second essay at authorship, cheered by the conviction that very many readers, who are personally unknown-to me, will receive this narrative with the kindly consideration and allowances of friends; and that many more, under the genial influences of an innate love of liberty, and of a desire to see the same social and religious blessings they themselves enjoy, disseminated throughout the world, will sympathize with me in the efforts by which I have striven, B

2 INTRODUCTION.

however imperfectly, to elevate the position and character of our fellow-men in Africa. This knowledge makes me doubly anxious to render my narrative acceptable to all my readers ; but, in the absence of any excellence in literary composition, the natural consequence of my pursuits, I have to offer only a simple account of a mission which, with respect to the objects proposed to be thereby accomplished, formed a noble contrast to some of the earlier expeditions to Eastern Africa. I be- lieve that the information it will give, respecting the people visited and the countries traversed, will not be materially gainsaid by any future commonplace traveller like myself, who may be blest with fair health and a gleam of sunshine in his breast. This account is written in the earnest hope that it may contribute to that information which will yet cause the great and fertile continent of Africa to be no longer kept wantonly sealed, but made available as the scene of European enterprise, and will enable its people to take a place among the nations of the earth, thus securing the happiness and prosperity of tribes now sunk in barbarism or debased by slavery ; and, above all, I cherish the hope that it may lead to the introduction of the blessings of the Gospel. The first expedition sent to Hast Africa, after the Portu- euese had worked a passage round the Cape, was instituted under the auspices of the Government of Portugal, for the purpose, it is believed, of discovering the land of Ophir, made mention of in Holy Scripture as the country whence King Solomon obtained sandal-wood, ivory, apes, peacocks, and gold. The terms used by the Jews to express the first four articles had, according to Max Miiller, no existence in the Hebrew language, but were words imported into it from the Sanscrit. It is curious then, that the search was not directed to the Coast of India,—more particularly as Sanscrit was

DSI

INTRODUCTION. 3

known on the Malabar Coast,—and there also peacocks and sandal-wood are met with in abundance. The Portuguese, like some others of more modern times, were led to believe that Sofalla, because sometimes pronounced Zophar by the Arabs, from being the lowest or most southerly port they visited, was identical with the Ophir alluded to in Sacred History.

Eastern Africa had been occupied from the most remote times by traders from India and the Red Sea. Vasco da Gama, in 1497-8, found them firmly established at Mosam- bique, and, after reaching India, he turned with longing eyes from Calicut towards Sofalla, and actually visited it in 1502. As the Scriptural Ophir, it was expected to be the most lucrative of all the Portuguese stations; and, under the impression that an important settlement could be esta- blished there, the Portuguese conquered, at great loss of both men and money, the district in which the gold-washings were situated; but, in the absence of all proper machinery, a vast amount of labour returned so small an amount of gain, that they abandoned them in disgust.

The next expedition, consisting of three ships and a thousand men, mostly gentlemen volunteers, left Lisbon in 1569 for the conquest of the gold mines or washings of the Chief of Monomotapa, west of Tette, and of those in Manica, still further west, but in a more southerly direction ; and also to find a route to the west coast. In this last object they failed; and to this day it has been accomplished by only. one European, and that an Englishman. The expedition was commanded by Francisco Barreto, and abundantly sup- plied with horses, asses, camels, and provisions. Ascend- ing the Zambesi as far as Senna, they found many Arab and other traders already settled there, who received the strangers with great hospitality. The horses, however,

B2

4 INTRODUCTION.

having passed through a district abounding with tsetse, an insect whose bite is fatal to domestic animals, soon showed the emaciation peculiar to the poison; and Senna being notoriously unhealthy, the sickness of both men and horses aroused Barreto’s suspicion that poison had been admini- stered by the inhabitants, most of whom, consequently, he put to the sword or blew away from his guns. Marching beyond Senna with a party five hundred and sixty strong, he and his men suffered terribly from hunger and thirst, and, after being repeatedly assaulted by a large body of natives, the expedition was compelled to return without ever reaching the gold-mines which Barreto so eagerly sought.

Previous to this, however, devoted Roman Catholic mis- sionaries had penetrated where an army could not go; for Senhor Bordalo, in his excellent Historical Essays, mentions that the Jesuit father Goncalo da Silveira had already suffered martyrdom by command of the Chief of Monomotapa. Indeed, missionaries of that body of Christians established themselves in a vast number of places in Eastern Africa, as the ruins of mission stations still testify ; but, not having suc- ceeded in meeting with any reliable history of the labours of these good men, it is painful for me to be unable to contradict the calumnies which Portuguese writers still heap on their memory. So far as the impression left on the native mind goes, it is decidedly favourable to their zeal and piety ; while the writers referred to roundly assert that the missionaries engaged in the slave-trade ; which is probably as false as the more modern scandals occasionally retailed against their Protestant brethren. Philanthropists sometimes err in ac- cepting the mere gossip of coast villages as facts, when asserting the atrocities of our countrymen abroad; while others, pretending to regard all philanthropy as weakness,

INTRODUCTION. 5

yet practising that silliest of all hypocrisies, the endeavour to appear worse than they are, accept and publish the mere brandy-and-water twaddle of immoral traders, against a body of men who, as a whole, are an honour to human kind. In modern missionary literature, now widely spread, we have a record which will probably outlive all misrepresentation ; and it is much to be regretted that there is no available Catholic literature of the same nature, and that none of the translations which may have been made into the native tongues can now be consulted. We cannot believe that these good men would risk their lives for the unholy gains which, even were they lawful, by the rules of their order they could not enjoy; but it would be extremely interesting to all their successors to know exactly what were the real causes of their failure in perpetuating the faith.

In order that the following narrative may be clearly under- stood, it is necessary to call to mind some things which took place previous to the Zambesi Expedition being sent out. Most geographers are aware that, before the discovery of Lake Ngami and the well watered country in which the Makololo dwell, the idea prevailed that a large part of the interior of Africa consisted of sandy deserts, into which rivers ran and were lost. During my journey in 1852-6, from sea to sea, across the south intertropical part of the continent, it was found to be a well watered country, with large tracts of fine fertile soil covered with forest, and beautiful grassy valleys, occupied by a considerable population ; and one of the most wonderful waterfalls in the world was brought to light. The peculiar form of the continent was then ascertained to be an elevated plateau, somewhat depressed in the centre, and with fissures in the sides by which the rivers escaped to the sea; and this great fact in physical

6 INTRODUCTION,

geography can never be referred to without calling to mind the remarkable hypothesis by which the distinguished Presi- dent of the Royal Geographical Society (Sir Roderick I. Murchison) clearly indicated this peculiarity, before it was verified by actual observation of the altitudes of the country and by the courses of the rivers. New light was thrown on other portions of the continent by the famous travels of Dr. Barth, by the researches of the Church of England Missionaries Krapf, Erkhardt, and Rebman, by the persever- ing efforts of Dr. Baikie, the last martyr to the climate and English enterprise, by the journey of Francis Galton, and by the most interesting discoveries of Lakes Tanganyika and Victoria Nyanza by Captain Burton, and by Captain Speke, whose untimely end we all so deeply deplore. Then followed the researches of Van der Decken, Thornton, ‘and others ; and last of all the grand discovery of the main source of the Nile, which every Englishman must feel an honest pride in knowing was accomplished by our gallant countrymen, Speke and Grant. The fabulous torrid zone, of parched and burning sand, was now proved to be a well watered region resembling North America in its fresh-water lakes, and India in its hot humid lowlands, jungles, ghauts, and cool highland plains.

In our exploration the chief object in view was not to discover objects of nine days’ wonder, to gaze and be gazed at by barbarians; but to note the climate, the natural productions, the local diseases, the natives and their relation to the rest of the world; all which were observed with that peculiar interest which, as regards the future, the first white man cannot but feel in a continent whose history is only just beginning. When proceeding to the West Coast, in order to find a path to the sea by which lawful commerce might

INTRODUCTION. a

be introduced to aid missionary operations, it was quite striking to observe, several hundreds of miles from the ocean, the very decided influence of that which is known as Lord Palmerston’s policy. Piracy had been abolished, and the slave-trade so far suppressed, that it was spoken of by Portuguese, who had themselves been slave-traders, as a thing of the past. Lawful commerce had increased from an annual total of 20,0002. in ivory and gold-dust, to between two and three millions, of which one million was in palm oil to our own country. Over twenty Missions had been established, with schools, in which more than twelve thousand pupils were taught. Life and property were rendered secure on the Coast, and comparative peace imparted to millions of people in the interior, and all this at a time when, by the speeches of infiu- ential men in England, the world was given to understand that the English cruisers had done nothing but aggravate the evils of the slave-trade. It is so reasonable to expect that self-interest would induce the slave-trader to do his utmost to preserve the lives by which he makes his gains, that men yielded ready credence to the plausible theory; but the atrocious waste of human life was just as great when the slave-trade was legal; it always has been, and must be, marked by the want of foresight characteristic of the mur- derer. Every one wonders why he, who has taken another’s life, did not take this, that, or the other precaution to avoid detection ; and every one may well wonder why slave-traders have always, by over-crowding and all its evils, acted so much in direct opposition to their own interests, but it is the fatality of the murderer; the loss of life from this cause, simply baffles exaggeration.

On this subject the opinion of the Rey. J. L. Wilson, a most intelligent American Missionary, who has written by .

8 INTRODUCTION.

far the ablest work on the West Coast that has yet appeared, is worth a host. He declares that the efforts of the English Government are worthy of all praise. Had it not been for the cruisers, and especially those of England, Africa would still have been inaccessible to missionary labour; “and it is devoutly to be hoped,” he adds, “that these noble and dis- interested measures may not be relaxed until the foul demon be driven away from the earth.” The slave-trade is the greatest obstacle in existence to civilization and commercial progress; and as the English are the most philanthropic people in the world, and will probably always have the largest commercial stake in the African continent, the policy for its suppression in every possible way shows thorough wisdom and foresight.

When, in pursuit of the same object, the Hast Coast was afterwards reached, it was found sealed up. Although praise- worthy efforts had been made by Her Majesty’s cruisers, yet in consequence of foreigners being debarred from entering the country, neither traders nor missionaries had established themselves. The trade was still only in’a little ivory, gold-dust, and slaves, just as it was on the West Coast, before Lord Palmerston’s policy came into operation there. It was, however, subsequently discovered that the Portuguese Government professed itself willing, nay anxious, to let the country be opened to the influences of civilization and lawful commerce—indeed it could scarcely be otherwise, seeing that not a grain of benefit ever accrued to Portugal by shutting it up;—and the Zambesi, a large river, promised to be a fine inlet to the highlands and interior generally ; the natives were agricultural, and all fond of trading; the soil was fertile—indigo, cotton, tobacco, sugar-cane, and other articles of value, were already either cultivated or growing

INTRODUCTION. g

wild. It seemed, therefore, that if this region could be opened to lawful commerce and Christian Missions, it would have the effect of aiding or supplementing our cruisers in the same way as had been done by the missionaries and traders on the West Coast, and that an inestimable service would be thereby rendered to Africa and Europe.

The main object of the Zambesi Expedition, as our instruc- tions from Her Majesty's Government explicitly stated, was to extend the knowledge already attained of the geography and mineral and agricultural resources of Eastern and Cen- tral Africa—to improve our acquaintance with the inhabi- tants, and to endeavour to engage them to apply themselves to industrial pursuits and to the cultivation of their lands, with a view to the production of raw material to be exported to England in return for British manufactures; and it was hoped, that, by encouraging the natives to occupy themselves in the development of the resources of the country, a con- siderable adyance might be made towards the extinction of the slaye-trade, as they would not be long in discovering that the former would eventually be a more certain source of profit than the latter. The Expedition was sent in ac- cordance with the settled policy of the English Government ; and the Earl of Clarendon, being then at the head of the Foreign Office, the Mission was organized under his imme- diate care. When a change of Government ensued, we experienced the same generous countenance and sympathy from the Earl of Malmesbury, as we had previously received from Lord Clarendon; and, on the accession of Earl Russell to the high office he has so long filled, we were always fayoured with equally ready attention and the same prompt assistance. Thus the conviction was produced that our work embodied the principles, not of any one party, but of the

10 INTRODUCTION.

hearts of the statesmen and of the people of England generally. The Expedition owes great obligations to the Lords of the Admiralty for their unvarying readiness to render us every assistance in their power; and to the warm- hearted and ever-obliging hydrographer to the Admiralty, the late Admiral Washington, as a subordinate, but most effective agent, our heartfelt gratitude is also due; and we must ever thankfully acknowledge that our efficiency was mainly due to the kind services of Admirals Sir Frederick Grey, Sir Baldwin Walker, and all the naval officers serving under them on the Hast Coast. Nor must I omit to record our obligations to Mr. Skead, R.N. The Luawe was carefully sounded and surveyed by this officer, whose skilful and zealous labours, both on that river, and afterwards on the Lower Zambesi, were deserving of all praise.

In speaking of what has been done by the Expedition, it should always be understood that Dr. Kark, Mr. Charles Livingstone, Mr. R. Thornton, and others composed it. In using the plural number they are meant, and I wish to bear testimony to the untirmg zeal, energy, courage, and perseverance with which my companions laboured ; undaunted by difficulties, dangers, or hard fare. It is my firm belief that, were their services required in any other capacity, they might be implicitly relied on to perform their duty like men. The reason why Dr. Kirk’s name does not appear on the title-page of this narrative is, because it is hoped that he may give an account of the botany and natural history of the Expedition in a separate work from his own pen. He collected above four thousand species of plants, specimens of most of the valuable woods, of the different native manufac- tures, of the articles of food, and of the different kinds of cotton from every spot we visited, and a great variety of birds

INTRODUCTION. 11

and insects; besides making meteorological observations, and affording

g, as our instructions required, medical assist-

ance to the natives In every case where he could be of any use.

Charles Livingstone was also fully occupied in his duties in following out the general objects of our mission, in en- couraging the culture of cotton, in making many magnetic and meteorological observations, in photographing so long as the materials would serve, and in collecting a large number of birds, insects, and other objects of interest. The collections, being Government property, have been forwarded to the British Museum, and to the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew; and, should Dr. Kirk undertake their description, three or four years will be required for the purpose.

Though collections were made, it was always distinctly understood that, however desirable these and our explora- tions might be, Her Majesty’s Government attached more importance to the moral influence that might be exerted on the minds of the natives by a well regulated and orderly household of Europeans setting an example of consistent moral conduct to all who might witness it ; treating the people with kindness, and relieving their wants, teaching them to make experi- ments in agriculture, explaining to them the more simple arts, imparting to them religious instruction as far as they are capable of receiving it, and inculcating peace and good will to each other.”

It would be tiresome to enumerate in detail all the little acts which were performed by us while following out our in- structions. As a rule, whenever the steamer stopped to take in wood, or for any other purpose, Dr. Kirk and Charles Livingstone went ashore to their duties: one of our party, who it was intended should navigate the vessel and lay

12 INTRODUCTION.

down the geographical positions, having failed to answer the expectations formed of him, these duties fell chiefly to my share. ‘They involved a considerable amount of night work, in which I was always cheerfully aided by my com- panions, and the results were regularly communicated to our warm and ever-ready friend, Sir Thomas Maclear of the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope. While this work was going through the press, we were favoured with the longitudes of several stations determined from observed occultations of stars by the moon, and from eclipses and reappearances of Jupiter’s satellites, by Mr. Mann, the able Assistant to the Cape Astronomer Royal; the lunars are still in the hands of Mr. G. W. H. Maclear of the same Observa- tory. In addition to these, the altitudes, variation of the compass, latitudes and longitudes, as calculated on the spot, appear in the map by Mr. Arrowsmith, and it is hoped may not differ much from the results of the same data in abler hands. The office of skipper,” which, rather than let the Expedition come to a stand, I under- took, required no great ability in one “not too old to learn:” it saved a salary, and, what was much more valu- able than gold, saved the Expedition from the drawback